::Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


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Unknown extension tag "indicator"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder<ref name="Kooij-2010">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Lange Reichl 2010">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}open access publication - free to read</ref><ref name="pmid23299717">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name=Caroline2010>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> in which there are significant problems with executive functions (e.g., attentional control and inhibitory control) that cause attention deficits, hyperactivity, or impulsiveness which is not appropriate for a person's age.<ref name="NHM-Cognitive Control">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Executive functions">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="pmid22316347">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and persist for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made.<ref name=CDC>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=Lake2011>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In school-aged individuals inattention symptoms often result in poor school performance. Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many children have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting.<ref name="pmid22851461" />

Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, the cause in the majority of cases is unknown. The World Health Organization estimates that it affected about 39 million people as of 2013.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> It affects about 6–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria<ref name="pmid22976615">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria.<ref name=Cowen2012>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed.<ref name=Jones2011>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more in boys than in girls.<ref name="pmid19393378">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Singh">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition.<ref name="Kooij-2010"/><ref name=Balint2008>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="underdiagnosed" /> The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders as well as that of high normal activity.<ref name=Lake2011/>

ADHD management recommendations vary by country and usually involves some combination of counseling, lifestyle changes, and medications. The British guideline only recommends medications as a first-line treatment in children who have severe symptoms and for them to be considered in those with moderate symptoms who either refuse or fail to improve with counseling.<ref name="NICE 2009">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Canadian and American guidelines recommend that medications and behavioral therapy be used together as a first-line therapy, except in preschool-aged children.<ref name="CADDRA" /><ref name="CDC guideline">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Stimulant therapy is not recommended as a first-line therapy in preschool-aged children in either guideline.<ref name="NICE 2009"/><ref name="CDC guideline" /> Treatment with stimulants is effective for up to 14 months; however, its long term effectiveness is unclear.<ref name="NICE 2009"/><ref name="Long-Term Outcomes Medications">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Long-term 2015">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Long-term 36">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Adolescents and adults tend to develop coping skills which make up for some or all of their impairments.<ref name="Art.218"/>

ADHD, its diagnosis, and its treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s.<ref name="Parrillo 2008 63">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers, parents, and the media. Topics include ADHD's causes and the use of stimulant medications in its treatment.<ref name="autogenerated3">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Most healthcare providers accept ADHD as a genuine disorder, and the debate in the scientific community mainly centers on how it is diagnosed and treated.<ref name="Sim">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Online">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Schonwald">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Before 1987 the condition was known as attention deficit disorder (ADD).<ref name=We2005>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder sections
Intro  Signs and symptoms  Cause  Pathophysiology  Diagnosis  Management  Prognosis  Epidemiology  History  Society and culture  Special populations  References  External links  

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