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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.<ref name=NHLBI07p11-12>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.<ref name=bts2009p4>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>

Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.<ref name=Martinez_geneenvir>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Its diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time and spirometry.<ref name=lemanske>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> It is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate.<ref name=Yawn2008/> Asthma may also be classified as atopic (extrinsic) or non-atopic (intrinsic)<ref name=RobbinsCotran2010/> where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing type 1 hypersensitivity reactions.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Treatment of acute symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (such as salbutamol) and oral corticosteroids.<ref name=NHLBI07p214>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> In very severe cases, intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, and hospitalization may be required.<ref name=NHLBI07p373>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens<ref name="NHLBI07p169">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> and irritants, and by the use of inhaled corticosteroids.<ref name=GINA_2011_page71>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Long-acting beta agonists (LABA) or antileukotriene agents may be used in addition to inhaled corticosteroids if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled.<ref name=GINA_2011_page33>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="Antileukotriene agents">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> The occurrence of asthma has increased significantly since the 1970s. In 2011, 235–300 million people globally were diagnosed with asthma,<ref name=WHO2011/><ref name=GINA_2011_page3/> and it caused 250,000 deaths.<ref name=GINA_2011_page3>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>


Asthma sections
Intro  [[Asthma?section={{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Signs_and_symptoms|{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Signs and symptoms]]  Causes  Pathophysiology  Diagnosis  Prevention  Management  Prognosis  Epidemiology  Economics   History   References  External links  

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