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William Morris design for "Trellis" wallpaper, 1862

The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that flourished in Europe and North America between 1880 and 1910,<ref name=triggs>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> emerging in Japan in the 1920s. It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms and it often used medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform and has been said to be essentially anti-industrial.<ref name="king"/><ref>Moses N. Ikiugu and Elizabeth A. Ciaravino, Psychosocial Conceptual Practice models in Occupational Therapy</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Its influence was felt in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s<ref name="grove"/> and continued among craft makers, designers and town planners long afterwards.<ref name=maccarthy2014/>

The term was first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1887.<ref name=crawford>Alan Crawford, C. R. Ashbee: Architect, Designer & Romantic Socialist, Yale University Press, 2005. ISBN 0300109393</ref> although the principles and style on which it was based had been developing in England for at least twenty years. It was inspired by the writings of the architect Augustus Pugin (1812–1852), the writer John Ruskin (1819–1900) and the artist William Morris (1834–1896).<ref name=triggs/>

The movement developed earliest and most fully in the British Isles<ref name="grove">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and North America.<ref>Wendy Kaplan and Alan Crawford, The Arts & Crafts Movement in Europe & America: Design for the Modern World, Los Angeles County Museum of Art</ref> It was largely a reaction against the perceived impoverished state of the decorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they were produced.<ref name="king">Brenda M. King, Silk and Empire</ref>


Arts and Crafts movement sections
Intro  Social and design principles  Furnishings and decoration gallery  Origins  Development  Outside the United Kingdom  Architecture  Garden design  Art education  Leading practitioners  See also  References  Bibliography and further reading  External links  

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