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Aristotle ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>"Aristotle" entry in Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers, 1998.</ref> Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [aristotélɛːs], Aristotélēs; 384

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{{#invoke:Message box|mbox}}322 BC)<ref>That these undisputed dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/383 BC, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown already by August Boeckh (Kleine Schriften VI 195); for further discussion, see Felix Jacoby on FGrHist 244 F 38. Ingemar Düring, Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Göteborg, 1957, p. 253.</ref> was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great starting from 343 BC.<ref name="philosophy1972">Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, Simon & Schuster, 1972.</ref> According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history ... [and] every scientist is in his debt."<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books. The fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, but, following Plato's death, Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism to empiricism.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} He believed all peoples' concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotle's views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works.

Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended into the Renaissance and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.

In metaphysics, Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages and continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as "The First Teacher" (Arabic: المعلم الأول‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}).

His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> – it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived.<ref>Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 9.</ref>


Aristotle sections
Intro   Life   Thought  Loss and preservation of his works  Legacy  List of works  Eponyms  See also  Notes and references  Further reading  External links  

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