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Title::journal    First::salmon    Species::farming    Farmed::volume    Issue::water    Pages::shrimp

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Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants.<ref name="providence1">Environmental Impact of Aquaculture</ref><ref>Aquaculture's growth continuing: improved management techniques can reduce environmental effects of the practice.(UPDATE)." Resource: Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World 16.5 (2009): 20-22. Gale Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 1 October 2009.</ref> Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.<ref name="AmericanHeritageDef">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Broadly speaking, the relation of aquaculture to finfish and shellfish fisheries is analogous to the relation of agriculture to hunting and gathering.<ref>Klinger, D. H. et al. 2012. Moving beyond the fished or farmed dichotomy. Marine Policy.</ref> Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats.

According to the FAO, aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated."<ref>Global Aquaculture Production Fishery Statistical Collections, FAO, Rome. Retrieved 2 October 2011.</ref> The reported output from global aquaculture operations would supply one half of the fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans;<ref>Half Of Fish Consumed Globally Is Now Raised On Farms, Study Finds Science Daily, September 8, 2009.</ref> however, there are issues about the reliability of the reported figures.<ref name=overreporting /> Further, in current aquaculture practice, products from several pounds of wild fish are used to produce one pound of a piscivorous fish like salmon.<ref name="Alliance" />

Particular kinds of aquaculture include fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, mariculture, algaculture (such as seaweed farming), and the cultivation of ornamental fish. Particular methods include aquaponics and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, both of which integrate fish farming and plant farming.


Aquaculture sections
Intro  History  21st-century practice  Species groups  Around the world  Over reporting  Aquacultural Methods  Netting materials  Issues  Animal welfare  Prospects  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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