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A drawing of faces expressing anger.

Anger or wrath is an intense emotional response. It is a normal emotion that involves a strong uncomfortable and emotional response to a perceived provocation. Often it indicates when one's basic boundaries are violated. Some have a learned tendency to react to anger through retaliation. Anger may be utilized effectively by setting boundaries or escaping from dangerous situations. Some people describe anger as a normal emotion that involves a strong uncomfortable and emotional response to a perceived provocation.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Raymond Novaco of UC Irvine, who since 1975 has published a plethora of literature on the subject, stratified anger into three modalities: cognitive (appraisals), somatic-affective (tension and agitations), and behavioral (withdrawal and antagonism).<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> William DeFoore, an anger-management writer, described anger as a pressure cooker: we can only apply pressure against our anger for a certain amount of time until it explodes.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Anger may have physical correlates such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline.<ref></ref> Some view anger as an emotion which triggers part of the fight or flight brain response.<ref>Harris, W., Schoenfeld, C. D., Gwynne, P. W., Weissler, A. M.,Circulatory and humoral responses to fear and anger, The Physiologist, 1964, 7, 155.</ref> Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively, and physiologically when a person makes the conscious choice to take action to immediately stop the threatening behavior of another outside force.<ref>Raymond DiGiuseppe, Raymond Chip Tafrate, Understanding Anger Disorders, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 133–159.</ref> The English term originally comes from the term anger of Old Norse language.<ref>Anger,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Houghton Mifflin Company.</ref> Anger can have many physical and mental consequences.

The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions, body language, physiological responses, and at times in public acts of aggression.<ref name="OxfDic">Michael Kent, Anger, The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-262845-3</ref> Animals, for example, make loud sounds, attempt to look physically larger, bare their teeth, and stare.<ref name="Primate"/> The behaviors associated with anger are designed to warn aggressors to stop their threatening behavior. Rarely does a physical altercation occur without the prior expression of anger by at least one of the participants.<ref name="Primate">Primate Ethology, 1967, Desmond Morris (Ed.). Weidenfeld & Nicolson Publishers: London, p.55</ref> While most of those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them," psychologists point out that an angry person can very well be mistaken because anger causes a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability.<ref name="EncPsy">Raymond W. Novaco, Anger, Encyclopedia of Psychology, Oxford University Press, 2000</ref>

Modern psychologists view anger as a primary, natural, and mature emotion experienced by virtually all humans at times, and as something that has functional value for survival. Anger can mobilize psychological resources for corrective action. Uncontrolled anger can, however, negatively affect personal or social well-being.<ref name="EncPsy"/><ref name="Ethics">John W. Fiero, Anger, Ethics, Revised Edition, Vol 1</ref> While many philosophers and writers have warned against the spontaneous and uncontrolled fits of anger, there has been disagreement over the intrinsic value of anger.<ref name="AngerTheory"/> The issue of dealing with anger has been written about since the times of the earliest philosophers, but modern psychologists, in contrast to earlier writers, have also pointed out the possible harmful effects of suppressing anger.<ref name="AngerTheory"/> Displays of anger can be used as a manipulation strategy for social influence.<ref name="Sutton1"/><ref name="Hochschild1"/>

Anger sections
Intro  Psychology and sociology  Differences between related concepts  Characterstics  Causes  Neurology  Physiology  Philosophical perspectives  Religious perspectives   See also   Further reading: academic articles  References  

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