Actions

::Ancient Rome

::concepts

Roman::empire    First::title    Republic::ancient    Their::uchicago    Penelope::which    Thayer::''the

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}

="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" Roma ="3" class="maptable" style="text-align:center"
Senātus Populusque Rōmānus ="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
Territories of the Roman civilization:


="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Rome


="2" Languages Latin


- class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Overthrow of Tarquin the Proud ="vertical-align: bottom;"509 BC ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Octavian proclaimed Augustus ="vertical-align: bottom;"27 BC
Ancient Rome
753 BC–476 AD
Government Kingdom (753 BC-509 BC)
Republic (509 BC- 27 BC)
Empire (27 BC-476 AD)
Historical era Ancient History
 •  Founding of Rome 753 BC
 •  Fall of Rome 476 AD

{{#invoke:sidebar|sidebar | wraplinks = true | bodyclass = vcard | belowstyle = border-top:1px #aaa solid | contentclass = plainlist | headingclass = navbox-title

| title =
Ancient Rome
</td></tr><tr><td>{{#invoke:InfoboxImage|InfoboxImage|image=Roman SPQR banner.svg|size=150px|sizedefault=frameless|alt=|border=no}}</td></tr><tr><td style="border-bottom: #aaa 1px solid">This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Ancient Rome

| heading1 = Periods | content1 =

| heading2 = Roman Constitution | content2 =

| heading3 = Ordinary magistrates | content3 =

| heading4 = Extraordinary magistrates | content4 =

| heading5 = Titles and honours | content5 =

| heading6 = Precedent and law | content6 =

| heading7 = Assemblies

| content7 = | below =
  • Other countries
  • Atlas

Ancient Rome portal

}} Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world<ref>Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995).</ref> with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population<ref name=McEvedy>McEvedy and Jones (1978).</ref><ref>See estimates of world population in antiquity.</ref><ref name="HistoricalEstimates">an average of figures from different sources as listed at the US Census Bureau's Historical Estimates of World Population; see also *Kremer, Michael (1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990" in The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108(3): 681–716.</ref>) and covering 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million sq mi) during its height between the first and second centuries AD.<ref>There are several different estimates for the Roman Empire. Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60. Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55. Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54. Maddison (2006, p. 51, 120) estimates 48. Roman Empire Population estimates 65 (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 and 120).</ref><ref name="Frank">Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p. 4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009</ref><ref name=size>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.

Ancient Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics<ref>A critical dictionary of the French Revolution By François Furet, Mona Ozouf. Pg 793.</ref><ref>Democratization in the South: the jagged wave By Robin Luckham, Gordon White. Pg 11.</ref><ref>American republicanism: Roman ideology in the United States Constitution By Mortimer N. S. Sellers. Pg. 90.</ref> such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.

By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged under the leadership of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common ritual for a new emperor's rise.<ref>The greatness and decline of Rome, Volume 2 By Guglielmo Ferrero, Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern, Henry John Chaytor. Pg. 215+.</ref><ref>Shakespeare and republicanism By Andrew Hadfield. Pg. 68.</ref><ref>The philosophy of law: an encyclopedia, Volume 1 By Christopher B. Gray. Pg. 741.</ref> States, such as Palmyra, temporarily divided the Empire in a 3rd-century crisis.

Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.


Ancient Rome sections
Intro  Founding myth  Kingdom  Republic  Late Republic  Empire \u2013 the Principate  Empire \u2013 the Dominate  Fall of the Western Roman Empire  Society  Culture  Technology  Legacy  Historiography  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Founding myth
<<>>