::Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


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{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease and Charcot disease, is a specific disorder that involves the death of neurons.<ref name=Kel2013>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In a number of countries the term motor neurone disease (MND) is commonly used,<ref name="Motor neurone disease">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> while others use that term for a group of five conditions of which ALS is the most common.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscle wasting.<ref name=NINDS2014MND>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> This results in difficulty speaking, swallowing, and eventually breathing.<ref name=NINDS2014MND />

The cause is not known in 90% to 95% of cases.<ref name=NINDS2014>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> About 5–10% of cases are inherited from a person's parents.<ref name="Lancet2011">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> About half of these genetic cases are due to one of two specific genes. It results in the death of the neurons that control voluntary muscles. The diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms with testing done to rule out other potential causes.<ref name="NINDS2014" />

There is no known cure for ALS.<ref name=NINDS2014 /> A medication called riluzole may extend life expectancy by about two to three months.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Non-invasive ventilation may result in both improved quality and length of life.<ref name=BMJ2008>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> The disease usually starts around the age of 60 and in inherited cases around the age of 50.<ref name="Lancet2011" /> The average survival from onset to death is three to four years.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> About 10% survive longer than 10 years.<ref name=NINDS2014 /> Most die from respiratory failure. In much of the world, rates of ALS are unknown.<ref name="Lancet2011" /> In Europe and the United States, the disease affects about 2 people per 100,000 per year.<ref name="Lancet2011" /><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Descriptions of the disease date back to at least 1824 by Charles Bell.<ref name="Rowland2001" /> In 1869, the connection between the symptoms and the underlying neurological problems were first described by Jean-Martin Charcot, who in 1874 began using the term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.<ref name="Rowland2001">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> It became well known in the United States in the 20th century when it affected the baseball player Lou Gehrig,<ref name=Kel2013 /> and later when Stephen Hawking gained fame for his scientific achievements.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In 2014 videos of the ice bucket challenge went viral on the internet and increased public awareness.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis sections
Intro   Signs and symptoms    Causes    Pathophysiology    Diagnosis    Management    Epidemiology    History    Society and culture    Research    References    External links   

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