Environmental impacts::Airline


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MODIS tracking of contrails generated by air traffic over the southeastern United States on January 29, 2004.

Aircraft engines emit noise pollution, gases and particulate emissions, and contribute to global dimming.<ref name=contrails>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Growth of the industry in recent years raised a number of ecological questions.

Domestic air transport grew in China at 15.5 percent annually from 2001 to 2006. The rate of air travel globally increased at 3.7 percent per year over the same time. In the EU greenhouse gas emissions from aviation increased by 87% between 1990 and 2006.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=pressrelease |type=Press release }}</ref> However it must be compared with the flights increase, only in UK, between 1990 and 2006 terminal passengers increased from 100 000 thousands to 250 000 thousands.,<ref></ref> according to AEA reports every year, 750 million passengers travel by European airlines, which also share 40% of merchandise value in and out of Europe.<ref></ref> Without even pressure from "green activists", targeting lower ticket prices, generally, airlines do what is possible to cut the fuel consumption (and gas emissions connected therewith). Further, according to some reports, it can be concluded that the last piston-powered aircraft were as fuel-efficient as the average jet in 2005.<ref></ref>

Despite continuing efficiency improvements from the major aircraft manufacturers, the expanding demand for global air travel has resulted in growing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, the aviation sector, including US domestic and global international travel, make approximately 1.6 percent of global anthropogenic GHG emissions per annum. North America accounts for nearly 40 percent of the world's GHG emissions from aviation fuel use.<ref>David McCollum, Gregory Gould, and David Greene. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies, 2009.</ref>

CO2 emissions from the jet fuel burned per passenger on an average {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} airline flight is about 353 kilograms (776 pounds).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Loss of natural habitat potential associated with the jet fuel burned per passenger on a {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} airline flight is estimated to be 250 square meters (2700 square feet).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

In the context of climate change and peak oil, there is a debate about possible taxation of air travel and the inclusion of aviation in an emissions trading scheme, with a view to ensuring that the total external costs of aviation are taken into account.<ref>Including Aviation into the EU ETS: Impact on EU allowance prices ICF Consulting for DEFRA February 2006</ref>

The airline industry is responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gases emitted by the U.S. transportation sector. Boeing estimates that biofuels could reduce flight-related greenhouse-gas emissions by 60 to 80 percent. The solution would be blending algae fuels with existing jet fuel:<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

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  • KLM has made the first commercial flight with biofuel in 2009.

There are projects on electric aircraft, and some of them are fully operational as of 2013.

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Environmental impacts
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