::Acinetobacter baumannii


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Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting people with compromised immune systems, and is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-derived (nosocomial) infection. It has also been isolated from environmental soil and water samples.<ref name="J. Yeom">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Bacteria of this genus lack flagella, whip-like structures many bacteria use for locomotion, but exhibit twitching or swarming motility. This may be due to the activity of type IV pili, pole-like structures that can be extended and retracted. Motility in A. baumannii may also be due to the excretion of exopolysaccharide, creating a film of high-molecular-weight sugar chains behind the bacterium to move forward.<ref name="CN McQueary">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Clinical microbiologists typically differentiate members of the Acinetobacter genus from other Moraxellaceae by performing an oxidase test, as Acinetobacter spp. are the only members of the Moraxellaceae to lack cytochrome c oxidases.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> A. baumannii is part of the ACB complex (A. baumannii, A. calcoaceticus, and Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU). Members of the ACB complex are difficult to determine the specific species, and comprise the most clinically relevant members of the genus.<ref name="MK O'Shea">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> A. baumannii has also been identified as an ESKAPE pathogen (Enterococcus faecium,, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species), a group of pathogens with a high rate of antibiotic resistance that are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Colloquially, A. baumannii is referred to as 'Iraqibacter' due to its seemingly sudden emergence in military treatment facilities during the Iraq War.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It has continued to be an issue for veterans and soldiers who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii has spread to civilian hospitals in part due to the transport of infected soldiers through multiple medical facilities.<ref name="CN McQueary" />

Acinetobacter baumannii sections
Intro  Virulence factors and determinants  Course of treatment for infection  Occurrence in veterans injured in Iraq and Afghanistan  Incidence of A. baumannii in hospitals   References   

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