Mahdist leader::Abdallahi ibn Muhammad


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Mahdist leader After the unexpected death of the Mahdi in June 1885, Abdullah succeeded as leader of the Mahdists, declaring himself "Khalifat al-Mahdi", or successor of the Mahdi.<ref name=EB/>{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} He faced internal disputes over his leadership with the Ashraf and he had to suppress several revolts in 1885-1886, 1888-1889, and 1891 before emerging as sole leader.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} At first the Mahdiyah was run on military lines as a jihad state, with the courts enforcing Sharia law and the precepts of the Mahdi, which had equal force. Later the Khalifa established a more traditional administration.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}

He felt the best course of action to keep internal problems to a minimum was to expand into Ethiopia and Egypt. The Khalifa invaded Ethiopia with 60,000 Ansar troops and sacked Gondar in 1887. He later refused to make peace.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} He successfully repulsed the Ethiopians at the Battle of Metemma on March 9, 1889, where the Ethiopian emperor Yohannes IV was killed.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} He created workshops to maintain steam boats on the Nile and to manufacture ammunition.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} But the Khailfa underestimated the strength of the Anglo-Egyptian forces and suffered a crushing defeat in Egypt.<ref name=EB/>

The Egyptians failed to counter up the Nile; however in the 1890s the state became strained economically, and suffered from crop failures instead.<ref name=EB/> The Ashraf, in November 1891, decided to press again, but were put down one final time; they were prevented from causing any further issues.<ref name=EB/> During the next four years, Khailfa strengthened the military and financial situation of the Sudan; however this was not enough as, the Sudan became threatened by the Italian, French and British imperial forces that surrounded it. In 1896, an Anglo-Egyptian army under General Herbert Kitchener began the reconquest of the Sudan.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}<ref name=EB/>

Abdallahi ibn Muhammad sections
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Mahdist leader
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