::Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan


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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Arabic: عبد الملك بن مروان‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad Caliph. He was born in Medina, Hejaz.<ref name=EB/><ref>There is uncertainty as to when his actual birth occurred. Sources say 646 or 647.</ref> `Abd al-Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler, despite the many political problems that impeded his rule. The 14th-century Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun states: "`Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan is one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs. He followed in the footsteps of `Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Commander of the Believers, in regulating state affairs".

During his reign, all important records were translated into Arabic, and for the first time a special currency for the Muslim world was minted, which led to war with the Byzantine Empire under Justinian II. The Byzantines were led by Leontios at the Battle of Sebastopolis in 692 in Asia Minor and were decisively defeated by the Caliph after the defection of a large contingent of Slavs. The Islamic currency was then made the only currency of exchange in the Muslim world. Also, many reforms happened in his time relating to agriculture and commerce. `Abd al-Malik consolidated Muslim rule and extended it, made Arabic the state language, and organized a regular postal service.<ref>Classical Islam G.Gunebam</ref>

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan sections
Intro  Early life   Campaigns in Iraq and Hejaz    Campaigns in North Africa   Anatolia   Reforms    Art and architecture    Death    References    Sources    External links   

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