## Specifications::74181

### ::concepts

Logic::computer Computer::digital Circuit::based Series::first Design::papers Category::archive**Specifications**

The 74181 is a 7400 series medium-scale integration (MSI) TTL integrated circuit, containing the equivalent of 75 logic gates<ref> Miles Murdocca, Apostolos Gerasoulis, and Saul Levy. "Novel Optical Computer Architecture Utilizing Reconfigurable Interconnects". 1991. p. 23. quote: "Logic diagram for the 74181 ... There are 63 logic gates." </ref> and most commonly packaged as a 24-pin DIP. The 4-bit wide ALU can perform all the traditional add / subtract / decrement operations with or without carry, as well as AND / NAND, OR / NOR, XOR, and shift. Many variations of these basic functions are available, for a total of 16 arithmetic and 16 logical operations on two four-bit words. Multiply and divide functions are not provided but can be performed in multiple steps using the shift and add or subtract functions. Shift is not an explicit function but can be derived from several available functions including (A+B) plus A, A plus AB{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Clarify |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}.

The 74181 performs these operations on two four-bit operands generating a four-bit result with carry in 22 nanoseconds (45 MHz). The 74S181 performs the same operations in 11 nanoseconds (90 MHz), while the 74F181 performs the operations in 7 nanoseconds (143 MHz) (typical).

Multiple 'slices' can be combined for arbitrarily large word sizes. For example, sixteen 74S181s and five 74S182 look ahead carry generators can be combined to perform the same operations on 64-bit operands in 28 nanoseconds (36 MHz). Although overshadowed by the performance of today's multi-gigahertz 64-bit microprocessors, this was quite impressive when compared to the sub megahertz clock speeds of the early four and eight bit microprocessors.

**74181 sections**

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