Actions

::1970s

::concepts

Revision::october    

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} <imagemap>File:1970s decade montage.png| U.S. President Richard Nixon doing the V for Victory sign after his resignation from office after the Watergate scandal in 1974; Refugees aboard a US naval boat after the Fall of Saigon, leading to the end of the Vietnam War in 1975; The 1973 oil crisis put the nation of America in gridlock and caused economic damage throughout the developed world; Both the leaders of Israel and Egypt shake hands after the signing of the Camp David Accords in 1978; The 1970 Bhola cyclone kills an estimated 500,000 people in the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (which would become independent as Bangladesh in 1971) in November 1970; The Iranian Revolution of 1979 ousted Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi who was later replaced by an Islamic theocracy led by Ayatollah Khomeini; The popularity of the disco music genre peaked during the middle to late 1970s.|420px|thumb rect 301 4 592 200 Fall of Saigon rect 2 2 297 200 Watergate scandal rect 390 202 611 424 1973 oil crisis rect 192 203 386 423 Disco rect 0 203 184 424 Iranian Revolution rect 309 426 600 621 Camp David Accords rect 0 427 305 621 1970 Bhola cyclone </imagemap>

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century – 20th century21st century
Decades: 1940s 1950s 1960s1970s1980s 1990s 2000s
Years: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
1970s-related
categories:
BirthsDeathsBy country
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 1970s (pronounced "nineteen-seventies", commonly abbreviated as the "Seventies") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1970 and ended on December 31, 1979.

In the 21st century, historians have increasingly portrayed the 1970s as a "pivot of change" in world history focusing especially on the economic upheavals.<ref>Howard Brick, "Review", American Historical Review (2012) 117#5 p 1537</ref> In the Western world, social progressive values that began in the 1960s, such as increasing political awareness and political and economic liberty of women, continued to grow. In the United Kingdom, the 1979 elections resulted in the victory of its Conservative Party Margaret Thatcher, the first and to date only female British Prime Minister. Industrialized countries, except Japan, experienced an economic recession due to an oil crisis caused by oil embargoes by the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. The crisis saw the first instance of stagflation which began a political and economic trend of the replacement of Keynesian economic theory with neoliberal economic theory, with the first neoliberal governments being created in Chile, where a military coup led by Augusto Pinochet took place in 1973.

Novelist Tom Wolfe coined the term "'Me' decade" in his essay "The 'Me' Decade and the Third Great Awakening", published by New York Magazine in August 1976 referring to the 1970s. The term describes a general new attitude of Americans towards atomized individualism and away from communitarianism in clear contrast with the 1960s.

In Asia, affairs regarding the People's Republic of China changed significantly following the recognition of the PRC by the United Nations, the death of Mao Zedong and the beginning of market liberalization by Mao's successors. Despite facing an oil crisis due to the OPEC embargo, the economy of Japan witnessed a large boom in this period, overtaking the economy of West Germany to become the second-largest in the world.<ref name="secondecon">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The United States withdrew its military forces from their previous involvement in the Vietnam War which had grown enormously unpopular. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan which led to an ongoing war for ten years.

The 1970s saw an initial increase in violence in the Middle East as Egypt and Syria declared war on Israel, but in the late 1970s, the situation in the Middle East was fundamentally altered when Egypt signed the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty. Anwar El Sadat, President of Egypt, was instrumental in the event and consequently became extremely unpopular in the Arab World and the wider Muslim world.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> He was assassinated in 1981. Political tensions in Iran exploded with the Iranian Revolution in 1979 which overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty and established an Islamic republic of Iran under the leadership of the Ayatollah Khomeini.

Africa saw further decolonization in the decade, with Angola and Mozambique gaining their independence in 1975 from the Portuguese Empire after the restoration of democracy in Portugal. The continent was however plagued by endemic military coups, with the long-reigning Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie being removed, civil wars and famine.

The economies of much of the developing world continued to make steady progress in the early-1970s, because of the Green Revolution. They might have thrived and become stable in the way that Europe recovered after World War II through the Marshall Plan; however, their economic growth was slowed by the oil crisis but boomed immediately after.


1970s sections
Intro  Politics and wars  Disasters  Worldwide trends  Economy  Science and technology  Society  Popular culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Politics and wars
<<>>

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

First::united    Which::decade    States::their    Became::during    Popular::world    World::economic

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} <imagemap>File:1970s decade montage.png| U.S. President Richard Nixon doing the V for Victory sign after his resignation from office after the Watergate scandal in 1974; Refugees aboard a US naval boat after the Fall of Saigon, leading to the end of the Vietnam War in 1975; The 1973 oil crisis put the nation of America in gridlock and caused economic damage throughout the developed world; Both the leaders of Israel and Egypt shake hands after the signing of the Camp David Accords in 1978; The 1970 Bhola cyclone kills an estimated 500,000 people in the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (which would become independent as Bangladesh in 1971) in November 1970; The Iranian Revolution of 1979 ousted Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi who was later replaced by an Islamic theocracy led by Ayatollah Khomeini; The popularity of the disco music genre peaked during the middle to late 1970s.|420px|thumb rect 301 4 592 200 Fall of Saigon rect 2 2 297 200 Watergate scandal rect 390 202 611 424 1973 oil crisis rect 192 203 386 423 Disco rect 0 203 184 424 Iranian Revolution rect 309 426 600 621 Camp David Accords rect 0 427 305 621 1970 Bhola cyclone </imagemap>

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century – 20th century21st century
Decades: 1940s 1950s 1960s1970s1980s 1990s 2000s
Years: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
1970s-related
categories:
BirthsDeathsBy country
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 1970s (pronounced "nineteen-seventies", commonly abbreviated as the "Seventies") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1970 and ended on December 31, 1979.

In the 21st century, historians have increasingly portrayed the 1970s as a "pivot of change" in world history focusing especially on the economic upheavals.<ref>Howard Brick, "Review", American Historical Review (2012) 117#5 p 1537</ref> In the Western world, social progressive values that began in the 1960s, such as increasing political awareness and political and economic liberty of women, continued to grow. In the United Kingdom, the 1979 elections resulted in the victory of its Conservative Party Margaret Thatcher, the first and to date only female British Prime Minister. Industrialized countries, except Japan, experienced an economic recession due to an oil crisis caused by oil embargoes by the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. The crisis saw the first instance of stagflation which began a political and economic trend of the replacement of Keynesian economic theory with neoliberal economic theory, with the first neoliberal governments being created in Chile, where a military coup led by Augusto Pinochet took place in 1973.

Novelist Tom Wolfe coined the term "'Me' decade" in his essay "The 'Me' Decade and the Third Great Awakening", published by New York Magazine in August 1976 referring to the 1970s. The term describes a general new attitude of Americans towards atomized individualism and away from communitarianism in clear contrast with the 1960s.

In Asia, affairs regarding the People's Republic of China changed significantly following the recognition of the PRC by the United Nations, the death of Mao Zedong and the beginning of market liberalization by Mao's successors. Despite facing an oil crisis due to the OPEC embargo, the economy of Japan witnessed a large boom in this period, overtaking the economy of West Germany to become the second-largest in the world.<ref name="secondecon">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The United States withdrew its military forces from their previous involvement in the Vietnam War which had grown enormously unpopular. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan which led to an ongoing war for ten years.

The 1970s saw an initial increase in violence in the Middle East as Egypt and Syria declared war on Israel, but in the late 1970s, the situation in the Middle East was fundamentally altered when Egypt signed the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty. Anwar El Sadat, President of Egypt, was instrumental in the event and consequently became extremely unpopular in the Arab World and the wider Muslim world.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> He was assassinated in 1981. Political tensions in Iran exploded with the Iranian Revolution in 1979 which overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty and established an Islamic republic of Iran under the leadership of the Ayatollah Khomeini.

Africa saw further decolonization in the decade, with Angola and Mozambique gaining their independence in 1975 from the Portuguese Empire after the restoration of democracy in Portugal. The continent was however plagued by endemic military coups, with the long-reigning Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie being removed, civil wars and famine.

The economies of much of the developing world continued to make steady progress in the early-1970s, because of the Green Revolution. They might have thrived and become stable in the way that Europe recovered after World War II through the Marshall Plan; however, their economic growth was slowed by the oil crisis but boomed immediately after.


1970s sections
Intro  Politics and wars  Disasters  Worldwide trends  Economy  Science and technology  Society  Popular culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Politics and wars
<<>>