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An 1848 painting titled Germania, by Philipp Veit.

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples<ref>Merriman, John, A History of Modern Europe: From the French Revolution to the Present, 1996, p 715</ref> or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history, but reactionary forces regained control in each case, and the revolutions collapsed typically within a year.

The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature with the aim of removing the old feudal structures and the creation of independent national states. The revolutionary wave began in France in February, and immediately spread to most of Europe and parts of Latin America. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among the revolutionaries in different countries. Six factors were involved: widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership; demands for more participation in government and democracy; demands for freedom of press; the demands of the working classes; the upsurge of nationalism; and finally, the regrouping of the reactionary forces based on the royalty, the aristocracy, the army, the church and the peasants.<ref>R.J.W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds., The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849 (2000) pp v, 4</ref>

The uprisings were led by shaky ad hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, introduction of parliamentary democracy in the Netherlands and the definitive end of the Capetian monarchy in France. The revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Italy, and the Austrian Empire, but did not reach Russia, Sweden, Great Britain, and most of southern Europe (Spain, Serbia,<ref>Serbia's Role in the Conflict in Vojvodina 1848-49, Ohio State University, http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/rz/serbvio.htm</ref> Greece, Montenegro, Portugal, the Ottoman Empire).<ref>Nor did it reach Spain, Sweden, Portugal, or the Ottoman Empire. Evans and Strandmann (2000) p 2</ref>


Revolutions of 1848 sections
Intro  Origins  Events by country or region  Legacy and memory  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

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An 1848 painting titled Germania, by Philipp Veit.

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples<ref>Merriman, John, A History of Modern Europe: From the French Revolution to the Present, 1996, p 715</ref> or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history, but reactionary forces regained control in each case, and the revolutions collapsed typically within a year.

The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature with the aim of removing the old feudal structures and the creation of independent national states. The revolutionary wave began in France in February, and immediately spread to most of Europe and parts of Latin America. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among the revolutionaries in different countries. Six factors were involved: widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership; demands for more participation in government and democracy; demands for freedom of press; the demands of the working classes; the upsurge of nationalism; and finally, the regrouping of the reactionary forces based on the royalty, the aristocracy, the army, the church and the peasants.<ref>R.J.W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds., The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849 (2000) pp v, 4</ref>

The uprisings were led by shaky ad hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, introduction of parliamentary democracy in the Netherlands and the definitive end of the Capetian monarchy in France. The revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Italy, and the Austrian Empire, but did not reach Russia, Sweden, Great Britain, and most of southern Europe (Spain, Serbia,<ref>Serbia's Role in the Conflict in Vojvodina 1848-49, Ohio State University, http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/rz/serbvio.htm</ref> Greece, Montenegro, Portugal, the Ottoman Empire).<ref>Nor did it reach Spain, Sweden, Portugal, or the Ottoman Empire. Evans and Strandmann (2000) p 2</ref>


Revolutions of 1848 sections
Intro  Origins  Events by country or region  Legacy and memory  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Origins
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