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The Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 29 December 1834<ref>Several sources give Malthus's date of death as 29 December 1834. See Meyers Konversationslexikon (Leipzig, 4th edition, 1885–1892), "Biography" by Nigel Malthus (the memorial transcription reproduced in this article). But the 1911 Britannica gives 23 December 1834.</ref>) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.<ref name="Petersen, William 1979">Petersen, William. 1979. Malthus. Heinemann, London. 2nd ed 1999.</ref> Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert.<ref name="ReferenceA"></ref>

His An Essay on the Principle of Population observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease, leading to what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible.<ref>Geoffrey Gilbert, introduction to Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Oxford World's Classics reprint. viii in Oxford World's Classics reprint.</ref> He thought that the dangers of population growth precluded progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man".<ref name="Malthus T.R 1798. p13">Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Chapter 1, p 13 in Oxford World's Classics reprint.</ref> As an Anglican cleric, Malthus saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour.<ref name=bowler>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}

</ref> Malthus wrote:
That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence,
That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase, and,
That the superior power of population is repressed, and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence, by misery and vice.<ref>Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population, in Oxford World's Classics reprint. p 61, end of Chapter VII</ref>

Malthus placed the longer-term stability of the economy above short-term expediency. He criticized the Poor Laws,<ref>Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Chapter V, p 39–45. in Oxford World's Classics reprint.</ref> and (alone among important contemporary economists) supported the Corn Laws, which introduced a system of taxes on British imports of wheat.<ref>Geoffrey Gilbert, introduction to Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Oxford World's Classics reprint. xx.</ref> His views became influential, and controversial, across economic, political, social and scientific thought. Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.<ref>Browne, Janet 1995. Charles Darwin: Voyaging. Cape, London. pp 385–390</ref><ref>Raby P. 2001. Alfred Russel Wallace: a life. Princeton. p 21 and 131</ref> He remains a much-debated writer.


Thomas Robert Malthus sections
Intro  Early life and education  Population growth  Academic  Malthus\u2013Ricardo debate on political economy  Later life  Family  An Essay on the Principle of Population  Other works  Reception and influence  References in popular culture  Epitaph  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  [[Thomas_Robert_Malthus?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

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The Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 29 December 1834<ref>Several sources give Malthus's date of death as 29 December 1834. See Meyers Konversationslexikon (Leipzig, 4th edition, 1885–1892), "Biography" by Nigel Malthus (the memorial transcription reproduced in this article). But the 1911 Britannica gives 23 December 1834.</ref>) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.<ref name="Petersen, William 1979">Petersen, William. 1979. Malthus. Heinemann, London. 2nd ed 1999.</ref> Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert.<ref name="ReferenceA"></ref>

His An Essay on the Principle of Population observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease, leading to what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible.<ref>Geoffrey Gilbert, introduction to Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Oxford World's Classics reprint. viii in Oxford World's Classics reprint.</ref> He thought that the dangers of population growth precluded progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man".<ref name="Malthus T.R 1798. p13">Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Chapter 1, p 13 in Oxford World's Classics reprint.</ref> As an Anglican cleric, Malthus saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour.<ref name=bowler>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}

</ref> Malthus wrote:
That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence,
That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase, and,
That the superior power of population is repressed, and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence, by misery and vice.<ref>Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population, in Oxford World's Classics reprint. p 61, end of Chapter VII</ref>

Malthus placed the longer-term stability of the economy above short-term expediency. He criticized the Poor Laws,<ref>Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Chapter V, p 39–45. in Oxford World's Classics reprint.</ref> and (alone among important contemporary economists) supported the Corn Laws, which introduced a system of taxes on British imports of wheat.<ref>Geoffrey Gilbert, introduction to Malthus T.R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Oxford World's Classics reprint. xx.</ref> His views became influential, and controversial, across economic, political, social and scientific thought. Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.<ref>Browne, Janet 1995. Charles Darwin: Voyaging. Cape, London. pp 385–390</ref><ref>Raby P. 2001. Alfred Russel Wallace: a life. Princeton. p 21 and 131</ref> He remains a much-debated writer.


Thomas Robert Malthus sections
Intro  Early life and education  Population growth  Academic  Malthus\u2013Ricardo debate on political economy  Later life  Family  An Essay on the Principle of Population  Other works  Reception and influence  References in popular culture  Epitaph  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  [[Thomas_Robert_Malthus?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

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