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Example of a diploma from Suffolk University Law School conferring the Juris Doctor degree.

The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD) or Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (D.Jur. or DJur) is a professional doctorate<ref name="aaude2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="nsf2006">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }} Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="sdcba1969">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}. Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate</ref><ref name="utah2006">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="gfme2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="eb2002">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and first professional<ref name="usdoe2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="cbb1999">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> graduate degree<ref name="ucb2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="usc1995">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="unimelb2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> in law. The degree is earned by completing law school in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other common law countries. Many who hold the degree of Juris Doctor are individuals who practice law and may choose to focus their practice on criminal law, tort, family law, corporate law, and/or a wide range of other areas.

To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J.D. degree must pass a bar examination.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>http://admissions.calbar.ca.gov/Requirements.aspx</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The State of Wisconsin, however, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, and in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam, a practice known as the "Diploma Privilege." In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts commonly known as "federal courts." Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court.

The degree was first awarded in the United States in the late 19th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree (such as the Dottore in Giurisprudenza in Italy and the Juris Utriusque Doctor in Germany and Central Europe).<ref>Stevens, R. (1971). "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School", in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p. 427.</ref> Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a law degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers. It is a three-year program in most jurisdictions.<ref name="uwsl2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="russo2004">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


Juris Doctor sections
Intro  Etymology and abbreviations  Historical context  Creation of the J.D. and major common law approaches to legal education  Modern variants and curriculum  In academia  See also  Notes and references  External links  

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Example of a diploma from Suffolk University Law School conferring the Juris Doctor degree.

The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD) or Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (D.Jur. or DJur) is a professional doctorate<ref name="aaude2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="nsf2006">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }} Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="sdcba1969">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}. Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate</ref><ref name="utah2006">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="gfme2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.</ref><ref name="eb2002">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and first professional<ref name="usdoe2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="cbb1999">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> graduate degree<ref name="ucb2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="usc1995">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="unimelb2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> in law. The degree is earned by completing law school in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other common law countries. Many who hold the degree of Juris Doctor are individuals who practice law and may choose to focus their practice on criminal law, tort, family law, corporate law, and/or a wide range of other areas.

To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J.D. degree must pass a bar examination.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>http://admissions.calbar.ca.gov/Requirements.aspx</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The State of Wisconsin, however, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, and in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam, a practice known as the "Diploma Privilege." In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts commonly known as "federal courts." Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court.

The degree was first awarded in the United States in the late 19th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree (such as the Dottore in Giurisprudenza in Italy and the Juris Utriusque Doctor in Germany and Central Europe).<ref>Stevens, R. (1971). "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School", in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p. 427.</ref> Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a law degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers. It is a three-year program in most jurisdictions.<ref name="uwsl2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="russo2004">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


Juris Doctor sections
Intro  Etymology and abbreviations  Historical context  Creation of the J.D. and major common law approaches to legal education  Modern variants and curriculum  In academia  See also  Notes and references  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Etymology and abbreviations
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