## ::'t Hooft operator

### ::concepts

Hooft::operator Phase::wilson Which::action Confined::surface Theory::phases Example::scales

In theoretical physics, a** 't Hooft operator**, introduced by Gerard 't Hooft in the 1978 paper "On the phase transition towards permanent quark confinement",<ref>http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/phys/2005-0622-153832/UUindex.html On the phase transition towards permanent quark confinement</ref> is a dual version of the Wilson loop in which the electromagnetic potential *A* is replaced by its electromagnetic dual *A ^{mag}*, where the exterior derivative of

*A*is equal to the Hodge dual of the exterior derivative of

*A*. In d spacetime dimensions,

^{mag}*A*is a (d-3)-form and so the 't Hooft operator is the integral of

^{mag}*A*over a (d-3)-dimensional surface.

^{mag}**'t Hooft operator sections**

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