::'t Hooft operator


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In theoretical physics, a 't Hooft operator, introduced by Gerard 't Hooft in the 1978 paper "On the phase transition towards permanent quark confinement",<ref>http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/phys/2005-0622-153832/UUindex.html On the phase transition towards permanent quark confinement</ref> is a dual version of the Wilson loop in which the electromagnetic potential A is replaced by its electromagnetic dual Amag, where the exterior derivative of A is equal to the Hodge dual of the exterior derivative of Amag. In d spacetime dimensions, Amag is a (d-3)-form and so the 't Hooft operator is the integral of Amag over a (d-3)-dimensional surface.

't Hooft operator sections
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