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Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad 1237

Ulama ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Arabic: علماء‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ʿĀlim, "scholar", also spelled ulema; female is alimah (singular) and uluma (plural)), is defined as the "those recognized as scholars or authorities" in the "religious hierarchy" of the Islamic religious sciences.<ref name=Glasse-461/><ref name="Boewering-547">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Islam and Modernity">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The guardians of legal and religious tradition in Islam. Often they are "Imams of important mosques, judges, teachers in the religious faculties of universities",<ref name=Glasse-461>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> or the body of Muslim Islamic scholars have been trained in the whole body of Islamic law and in other Islamic disciplines, but may also be used to include the village mullahs and imams on the lowest rungs of the ladder of Islamic scholarship.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}In as much they correspond most closely to the class of the Scribes or Rabbis in Judaism.<ref>At least one author (Sudanese Islamist Hasan al-Turabi) includes those informally trained in religion insisting that because "all knowledge is divine and religious, a chemist, an engineer, and economist, or a jurist are all ulama." (source: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }})</ref>

Most ulama specialize in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) (these are known as fuqaha or muftis), and are considered the arbiters of sharia law by mainstream Muslims (though the closeness of some ulama to rulers may prevent them from being universally accepted).{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} Ulama may also include specialists in other areas such as muhaddith (concerned with the study of hadith) and mufassir (concerned with tafsir of the Quran).<ref name="Boewering-547"/>


Ulama sections
Intro  Etymology  Usage of the word 'Alim' in the Quran  History  Functions and requirements  Controversial aspects  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  

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Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad 1237

Ulama ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Arabic: علماء‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ʿĀlim, "scholar", also spelled ulema; female is alimah (singular) and uluma (plural)), is defined as the "those recognized as scholars or authorities" in the "religious hierarchy" of the Islamic religious sciences.<ref name=Glasse-461/><ref name="Boewering-547">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Islam and Modernity">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The guardians of legal and religious tradition in Islam. Often they are "Imams of important mosques, judges, teachers in the religious faculties of universities",<ref name=Glasse-461>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> or the body of Muslim Islamic scholars have been trained in the whole body of Islamic law and in other Islamic disciplines, but may also be used to include the village mullahs and imams on the lowest rungs of the ladder of Islamic scholarship.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}In as much they correspond most closely to the class of the Scribes or Rabbis in Judaism.<ref>At least one author (Sudanese Islamist Hasan al-Turabi) includes those informally trained in religion insisting that because "all knowledge is divine and religious, a chemist, an engineer, and economist, or a jurist are all ulama." (source: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }})</ref>

Most ulama specialize in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) (these are known as fuqaha or muftis), and are considered the arbiters of sharia law by mainstream Muslims (though the closeness of some ulama to rulers may prevent them from being universally accepted).{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} Ulama may also include specialists in other areas such as muhaddith (concerned with the study of hadith) and mufassir (concerned with tafsir of the Quran).<ref name="Boewering-547"/>


Ulama sections
Intro  Etymology  Usage of the word 'Alim' in the Quran  History  Functions and requirements  Controversial aspects  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Etymology
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