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{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown= |name|altname|nativename|acceptance|pronunciation |states|state|region |latd|latm|latNS|longd|longm|longEW |ethnicity|speakers|speakers2|extinct|era|revived|revived-cat |date|dateprefix|ref |familycolor|fam1|fam2|fam3|fam4|fam5|fam6|fam7|fam8|fam9 |fam10|fam11|fam12|fam13|fam14|fam15|family |ancestor|ancestor2|ancestor3|ancestor4|ancestor5|protoname |creator|created|setting|posteriori |dialects|dia1|dia2|dia3|dia4|dia5|dia6|dia7|dia8|dia9|dia10 |dia11|dia12|dia13|dia14|dia15|dia16|dia17|dia18|dia19|dia20 |stand1|stand2|stand3|stand4|stand5|stand6|standards |script|sign |nation|minority|agency |iso1|iso2|iso2b|iso2t|iso3|iso2comment|iso3comment|isoexception|iso6|ietf |lc1|ld1|lc2|ld2|lc3|ld3|lc4|ld4|lc5|ld5|lc6|ld6|lc7|ld7|lc8|ld8|lc9|ld9|lc10|ld10 |lc11|ld11|lc12|ld12|lc13|ld13|lc14|ld14|lc15|ld15|lc16|ld16|lc17|ld17|lc18|ld18|lc19|ld19|lc20|ld20 |lc21|ld21|lc22|ld22|lc23|ld23|lc24|ld24|lc25|ld25|lc26|ld26|lc27|ld27|lc28|ld28|lc29|ld29|lc30|ld30 |linglist|lingname|linglist2|lingname2|linglist3|lingname3|linglist4|lingname4|linglist5|lingname5 |lingua|guthrie |aiatsis|aiatsis2|aiatsis3|aiatsis4|aiatsis5|aiatsis6 |aiatsisname|aiatsisname2|aiatsisname3|aiatsisname4|aiatsisname5|aiatsisname6 |glotto|glotto2|glotto3|glotto4|glotto5 |glottoname|glottoname2|glottoname3|glottoname4|glottoname5 |glottorefname|glottorefname2|glottorefname3|glottorefname4|glottorefname5 |glottofoot |image|imagesize|imagealt|imagecaption|imageheader |map|mapsize|mapalt|mapcaption|map2|mapalt2|mapcaption2|boxsize |notice|notice2 }}

Hebrew street sign, above in Hebrew alphabet, below in Latin transliteration. Aluf Batslut veAluf Shum(he) ("The Onion Champion and the Garlic Champion") is a play by Hayim Nahman Bialik.
File:Simtat_Aluf_Batslut.JPG
Hebrew street sign, above in Hebrew alphabet, below in Latin transliteration. Aluf Batslut veAluf Shum(he) ("The Onion Champion and the Garlic Champion") is a play by Hayim Nahman Bialik.

Hebrew ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};

  1. REDIRECT ʿivrit [ʔivˈʁit] or [ʕivˈɾit]) is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.Unknown extension tag "ref" The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> Today, Hebrew is spoken by a total of 9 million people worldwide.<ref name=Behadrey-Haredim>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt.<ref name="ASB"/><ref name=OxfordDictionaryChristianChurch />Unknown extension tag "ref" Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants.<ref>"If you couldn't speak Greek by say the time of early Christianity you couldn't get a job. You wouldn't get a good job. a professional job. You had to know Greek in addition to your own language. And so you were getting to a point where Jews...the Jewish community in say Egypt and large cities like Alexandria didn't know Hebrew anymore they only knew Greek. And so you need a Greek version in the synagogue." -- Josheph Blankinsopp, Professor of Biblical Studies University of Notre Dame in A&E's Who Wrote the Bible</ref> It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to Ethnologue, had become, as of 1998, the language of 5 million people worldwide.<ref name=e18/> The United States has the second largest Hebrew speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers,<ref name="2009 survey">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> mostly from Israel.

Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel (the other being Modern Standard Arabic), while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the Middle East and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in Christian seminaries.

The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon Hakodesh (לשון הקדש{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), "the Holy Language", since ancient times.


Hebrew language sections
Intro   Etymology    History    Current status    Phonology    Hebrew grammar    Liturgical use in Judaism    See also    Notes    References    Bibliography    External links   

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Hebrew::language    Century::aramaic    Spoken::israel    Jewish::biblical    Title::which    Modern::first

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown= |name|altname|nativename|acceptance|pronunciation |states|state|region |latd|latm|latNS|longd|longm|longEW |ethnicity|speakers|speakers2|extinct|era|revived|revived-cat |date|dateprefix|ref |familycolor|fam1|fam2|fam3|fam4|fam5|fam6|fam7|fam8|fam9 |fam10|fam11|fam12|fam13|fam14|fam15|family |ancestor|ancestor2|ancestor3|ancestor4|ancestor5|protoname |creator|created|setting|posteriori |dialects|dia1|dia2|dia3|dia4|dia5|dia6|dia7|dia8|dia9|dia10 |dia11|dia12|dia13|dia14|dia15|dia16|dia17|dia18|dia19|dia20 |stand1|stand2|stand3|stand4|stand5|stand6|standards |script|sign |nation|minority|agency |iso1|iso2|iso2b|iso2t|iso3|iso2comment|iso3comment|isoexception|iso6|ietf |lc1|ld1|lc2|ld2|lc3|ld3|lc4|ld4|lc5|ld5|lc6|ld6|lc7|ld7|lc8|ld8|lc9|ld9|lc10|ld10 |lc11|ld11|lc12|ld12|lc13|ld13|lc14|ld14|lc15|ld15|lc16|ld16|lc17|ld17|lc18|ld18|lc19|ld19|lc20|ld20 |lc21|ld21|lc22|ld22|lc23|ld23|lc24|ld24|lc25|ld25|lc26|ld26|lc27|ld27|lc28|ld28|lc29|ld29|lc30|ld30 |linglist|lingname|linglist2|lingname2|linglist3|lingname3|linglist4|lingname4|linglist5|lingname5 |lingua|guthrie |aiatsis|aiatsis2|aiatsis3|aiatsis4|aiatsis5|aiatsis6 |aiatsisname|aiatsisname2|aiatsisname3|aiatsisname4|aiatsisname5|aiatsisname6 |glotto|glotto2|glotto3|glotto4|glotto5 |glottoname|glottoname2|glottoname3|glottoname4|glottoname5 |glottorefname|glottorefname2|glottorefname3|glottorefname4|glottorefname5 |glottofoot |image|imagesize|imagealt|imagecaption|imageheader |map|mapsize|mapalt|mapcaption|map2|mapalt2|mapcaption2|boxsize |notice|notice2 }}

Hebrew street sign, above in Hebrew alphabet, below in Latin transliteration. Aluf Batslut veAluf Shum(he) ("The Onion Champion and the Garlic Champion") is a play by Hayim Nahman Bialik.
File:Simtat_Aluf_Batslut.JPG
Hebrew street sign, above in Hebrew alphabet, below in Latin transliteration. Aluf Batslut veAluf Shum(he) ("The Onion Champion and the Garlic Champion") is a play by Hayim Nahman Bialik.

Hebrew ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};

  1. REDIRECT ʿivrit [ʔivˈʁit] or [ʕivˈɾit]) is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.Unknown extension tag "ref" The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> Today, Hebrew is spoken by a total of 9 million people worldwide.<ref name=Behadrey-Haredim>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt.<ref name="ASB"/><ref name=OxfordDictionaryChristianChurch />Unknown extension tag "ref" Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants.<ref>"If you couldn't speak Greek by say the time of early Christianity you couldn't get a job. You wouldn't get a good job. a professional job. You had to know Greek in addition to your own language. And so you were getting to a point where Jews...the Jewish community in say Egypt and large cities like Alexandria didn't know Hebrew anymore they only knew Greek. And so you need a Greek version in the synagogue." -- Josheph Blankinsopp, Professor of Biblical Studies University of Notre Dame in A&E's Who Wrote the Bible</ref> It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to Ethnologue, had become, as of 1998, the language of 5 million people worldwide.<ref name=e18/> The United States has the second largest Hebrew speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers,<ref name="2009 survey">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> mostly from Israel.

Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel (the other being Modern Standard Arabic), while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the Middle East and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in Christian seminaries.

The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon Hakodesh (לשון הקדש{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), "the Holy Language", since ancient times.


Hebrew language sections
Intro   Etymology    History    Current status    Phonology    Hebrew grammar    Liturgical use in Judaism    See also    Notes    References    Bibliography    External links   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Etymology
<<>>