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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use mdy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Ali ibn Abi Talib ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>"Ali". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.</ref> Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, translit.: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Arabic pronunciation: [ʕæliː ibn ʔæbiː t̪ˤæːlib]; 13th Rajab, 22 or 16 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH; September 20, 601 or July 17, 607 or 600<ref name="Khashayar">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> – January 27, 661)<ref name="Iranica"></ref> was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661.<ref name="Landau_Tasseron"/> A son of Abu Talib,<ref name="Landau_Tasseron">Biographies of the Prophet's companions and their successors, Ṭabarī, translated by Ella Landau-Tasseron, pp.37-40, Vol:XXXIX</ref> Ali was also the first young male who accepted Islam.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="watt">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shias due to Muhammad's statements in Ghadir Khumm regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad, and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of whom are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shi`i branches.<ref name="Britannica"></ref><ref name="Khumm">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="EncyclopediaIslam"/><ref name="EOAli3"/>

Many sources, especially Shia ones, record that Ali was the only person born in the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam.<ref name="Britannica"/><ref>Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Volume 1, page 52-53, Dr. Ali M. Sallabi, 2011</ref><ref>Sahih Muslim, Book 21, Hadith 57</ref> His father was Abu Talib and his mother was Fatima bint Asad,<ref name="Britannica"/> but he was raised in the household of Muhammad, who himself was raised by Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle and Ali's father. When Muhammad reported receiving a divine revelation, Ali was the first young male to accept his message and first to convert to Islam at the age of 12, dedicating his life to the cause of Islam.<ref name="Iranica"/><ref name="Tabatabae191">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="Ashraf 2005 p=14">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="Islam"></ref>

Ali migrated to Medina shortly after Muhammad did. Once there Muhammad told Ali that God had ordered Muhammad to give his daughter, Fatimah, to Ali in marriage.<ref name="Britannica"/> For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service, leading parties of warriors in battles, and carrying messages and orders. Ali took part in the early caravan raids from Mecca and later in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. Ali was appointed Caliph by the Companions of Muhammad (the Sahaba) in Medina after the assassination of the third caliph, `Uthman ibn Affan.<ref name="Ashraf (2005), pp. 119-120"/><ref name="Madelung (1997), pp. 141-145" /> He encountered defiance and civil war during his reign. In 661, Ali was attacked one morning while praying in the Great Masjid of Al-Kufah, and died two days later.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>

In Muslim culture, Ali is respected for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbending devotion to Islam, deep loyalty to Muhammad, equal treatment of all Muslims and generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies, and therefore is central to mystical traditions in Islam such as Sufism. Ali retains his stature as an authority on Quranic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and religious thought.<ref name="Madelung 1997 p=309 and 310">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Ali holds a high position in almost all Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him to Muhammad. Ali's influence has been important throughout Islamic history.<ref name="Britannica"/> Sunni and Shia scholars agree that the verse of Wilayah was narrated in honour of Ali, but there are differing interpretations of wilayah and the Imamate.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) }} The Sunni scholars believe that the verse is about Ali but does not recognise him as an Imam while, in the Shia Muslim view, Ali had been chosen by God as successor of Muhammad.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) }}


Ali sections
Intro  In Mecca  In Medina  Caliphate  Aftermath  Knowledge  Descendants  Views  Historiography  See also  Footnotes  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use mdy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Ali ibn Abi Talib ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>"Ali". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.</ref> Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, translit.: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Arabic pronunciation: [ʕæliː ibn ʔæbiː t̪ˤæːlib]; 13th Rajab, 22 or 16 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH; September 20, 601 or July 17, 607 or 600<ref name="Khashayar">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> – January 27, 661)<ref name="Iranica"></ref> was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661.<ref name="Landau_Tasseron"/> A son of Abu Talib,<ref name="Landau_Tasseron">Biographies of the Prophet's companions and their successors, Ṭabarī, translated by Ella Landau-Tasseron, pp.37-40, Vol:XXXIX</ref> Ali was also the first young male who accepted Islam.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="watt">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shias due to Muhammad's statements in Ghadir Khumm regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad, and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of whom are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shi`i branches.<ref name="Britannica"></ref><ref name="Khumm">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="EncyclopediaIslam"/><ref name="EOAli3"/>

Many sources, especially Shia ones, record that Ali was the only person born in the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam.<ref name="Britannica"/><ref>Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Volume 1, page 52-53, Dr. Ali M. Sallabi, 2011</ref><ref>Sahih Muslim, Book 21, Hadith 57</ref> His father was Abu Talib and his mother was Fatima bint Asad,<ref name="Britannica"/> but he was raised in the household of Muhammad, who himself was raised by Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle and Ali's father. When Muhammad reported receiving a divine revelation, Ali was the first young male to accept his message and first to convert to Islam at the age of 12, dedicating his life to the cause of Islam.<ref name="Iranica"/><ref name="Tabatabae191">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="Ashraf 2005 p=14">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref name="Islam"></ref>

Ali migrated to Medina shortly after Muhammad did. Once there Muhammad told Ali that God had ordered Muhammad to give his daughter, Fatimah, to Ali in marriage.<ref name="Britannica"/> For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service, leading parties of warriors in battles, and carrying messages and orders. Ali took part in the early caravan raids from Mecca and later in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. Ali was appointed Caliph by the Companions of Muhammad (the Sahaba) in Medina after the assassination of the third caliph, `Uthman ibn Affan.<ref name="Ashraf (2005), pp. 119-120"/><ref name="Madelung (1997), pp. 141-145" /> He encountered defiance and civil war during his reign. In 661, Ali was attacked one morning while praying in the Great Masjid of Al-Kufah, and died two days later.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>

In Muslim culture, Ali is respected for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbending devotion to Islam, deep loyalty to Muhammad, equal treatment of all Muslims and generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies, and therefore is central to mystical traditions in Islam such as Sufism. Ali retains his stature as an authority on Quranic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and religious thought.<ref name="Madelung 1997 p=309 and 310">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> Ali holds a high position in almost all Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him to Muhammad. Ali's influence has been important throughout Islamic history.<ref name="Britannica"/> Sunni and Shia scholars agree that the verse of Wilayah was narrated in honour of Ali, but there are differing interpretations of wilayah and the Imamate.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) }} The Sunni scholars believe that the verse is about Ali but does not recognise him as an Imam while, in the Shia Muslim view, Ali had been chosen by God as successor of Muhammad.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) }}


Ali sections
Intro  In Mecca  In Medina  Caliphate  Aftermath  Knowledge  Descendants  Views  Historiography  See also  Footnotes  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: In Mecca
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