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{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|ignoreblank=y | AKA| Date| Deaths| English_name| Event_Name| Image_Alt| Image_Caption| Image_Name| Imagesize| Location| Participants| Result| Thumb_Time| URL| accused| aka| also known as| also_known_as| alt| arrests| awards| blank1_data| blank1_label| blank2_data| blank2_label| blank_data| blank_label| budget| burial| caption| casualties1| casualties2| casualties3| cause| charges| convicted| convictions| coordinates| coroner| date| deaths| duration| english_name| event| fatalities| filmed by| filmed_by| first reporter| first_reporter| footage| image| image_alt| image_name| image_size| injuries| inquest| inquiries| litigation| location| missing| name| native_name| native_name_lang| nongregorian| notes| organisers| organizers| outcome| participants| partof| patron| patrons| place| property damage| property_damage| publication bans| publication_bans| reported death(s)| reported deaths| reported injuries| reported missing| reported property damage| result| suspects| susperps| theme| thumbtime| time| title| type| url| venue| verdict| website }} Operation Vistula (Polish: Akcja "Wisła"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country. The action was carried out by the Soviet-installed Polish communist authorities with the aim of removing material support and assistance to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army's terror operations.<ref name="twojebieszczady">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="semper6">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The UPA killings continued until 1947 in both Subcarpathian and Lublin Voivodeships with no hope for any peaceful resolution. Operation Vistula effectively brought an end to the hostilities.<ref name="Palski2008"/>

In three months beginning with the Soviet approval and aid,<ref name="Palski2008"/> about 141,000 civilians residing around Bieszczady and Low Beskids were forcibly resettled to formerly German territories, ceded to Poland at the Yalta Conference at the end of World War II.<ref>The Euromosaic notes on the Ukrainian in Poland. European Commission, October 2006. Wayback Machine.</ref> The operation was named after the Vistula River, Wisła in Polish. Some Polish and Ukrainian politicians as well as historians condemned the operation following the 1989 fall of communism in Eastern Europe, and described it as ethnic cleansing.<ref name="Snyder1999">Timothy Snyder, To Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and for All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947. Journal of Cold War Studies, Spring 1999.</ref><ref name="Bohdan, Kordan 1997. pp. 704-720">Bohdan S. Kordan (1997), "Making Borders Stick: Population Transfer and Resettlement in the Trans-Curzon Territories, 1944–1949". International Migration Review Vol. 31, No. 3., pp. 704-720 (in) Galicia: A Multicultured Land.</ref> Others pointed out that no other means of stopping the violence existed at the time since partisans used to regroup outside the Polish borders.<ref name="Palski2008"/>

During Operation Vistula conditions of the United Nations Charter of on the right of self-determination and international laws have been respected.<ref name="Palski2008"/> The deported farmers received financial help from the Polish government, and took over homes and farms left behind by the Germans, in most cases improving their living conditions due to increased size of newly acquired properties, brick buildings, and running water.<ref name="Palski2008"/> Dr Zbigniew Palski from IPN explains that identical operation was performed in Ukrainian SSR by the Soviet Union at the same time. It was dubbed "Operation West". Both operations were coordinated from Moscow; however, there was a shocking difference between their outcomes.<ref name="Palski2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Operation West parallel to Operation Vistula was conducted in West Ukraine by the Soviet NKVD targeting families of suspected UPA members. Over 114,000 mostly women and children were deported to Kazakh SSR and Siberia and forced into extreme poverty.<ref name="Palski2008"/> Only 19,000 men were among the NKVD deportees,<ref name="Palski2008"/> most of them sent to coal mines and stone quarries in the north. None of the people deported by the NKVD received any farms or empty homes to live in.<ref name="Palski2008"/>


Operation Vistula sections
Intro  Background  Action participants  Events  Situation of Lemkos in Poland  Legacy   See also    References   

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Poland::polish    Vistula::palski    Soviet::poles    Title::lemkos    Ukraine::republic    Books::akcja

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|ignoreblank=y | AKA| Date| Deaths| English_name| Event_Name| Image_Alt| Image_Caption| Image_Name| Imagesize| Location| Participants| Result| Thumb_Time| URL| accused| aka| also known as| also_known_as| alt| arrests| awards| blank1_data| blank1_label| blank2_data| blank2_label| blank_data| blank_label| budget| burial| caption| casualties1| casualties2| casualties3| cause| charges| convicted| convictions| coordinates| coroner| date| deaths| duration| english_name| event| fatalities| filmed by| filmed_by| first reporter| first_reporter| footage| image| image_alt| image_name| image_size| injuries| inquest| inquiries| litigation| location| missing| name| native_name| native_name_lang| nongregorian| notes| organisers| organizers| outcome| participants| partof| patron| patrons| place| property damage| property_damage| publication bans| publication_bans| reported death(s)| reported deaths| reported injuries| reported missing| reported property damage| result| suspects| susperps| theme| thumbtime| time| title| type| url| venue| verdict| website }} Operation Vistula (Polish: Akcja "Wisła"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country. The action was carried out by the Soviet-installed Polish communist authorities with the aim of removing material support and assistance to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army's terror operations.<ref name="twojebieszczady">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="semper6">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The UPA killings continued until 1947 in both Subcarpathian and Lublin Voivodeships with no hope for any peaceful resolution. Operation Vistula effectively brought an end to the hostilities.<ref name="Palski2008"/>

In three months beginning with the Soviet approval and aid,<ref name="Palski2008"/> about 141,000 civilians residing around Bieszczady and Low Beskids were forcibly resettled to formerly German territories, ceded to Poland at the Yalta Conference at the end of World War II.<ref>The Euromosaic notes on the Ukrainian in Poland. European Commission, October 2006. Wayback Machine.</ref> The operation was named after the Vistula River, Wisła in Polish. Some Polish and Ukrainian politicians as well as historians condemned the operation following the 1989 fall of communism in Eastern Europe, and described it as ethnic cleansing.<ref name="Snyder1999">Timothy Snyder, To Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and for All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947. Journal of Cold War Studies, Spring 1999.</ref><ref name="Bohdan, Kordan 1997. pp. 704-720">Bohdan S. Kordan (1997), "Making Borders Stick: Population Transfer and Resettlement in the Trans-Curzon Territories, 1944–1949". International Migration Review Vol. 31, No. 3., pp. 704-720 (in) Galicia: A Multicultured Land.</ref> Others pointed out that no other means of stopping the violence existed at the time since partisans used to regroup outside the Polish borders.<ref name="Palski2008"/>

During Operation Vistula conditions of the United Nations Charter of on the right of self-determination and international laws have been respected.<ref name="Palski2008"/> The deported farmers received financial help from the Polish government, and took over homes and farms left behind by the Germans, in most cases improving their living conditions due to increased size of newly acquired properties, brick buildings, and running water.<ref name="Palski2008"/> Dr Zbigniew Palski from IPN explains that identical operation was performed in Ukrainian SSR by the Soviet Union at the same time. It was dubbed "Operation West". Both operations were coordinated from Moscow; however, there was a shocking difference between their outcomes.<ref name="Palski2008">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Operation West parallel to Operation Vistula was conducted in West Ukraine by the Soviet NKVD targeting families of suspected UPA members. Over 114,000 mostly women and children were deported to Kazakh SSR and Siberia and forced into extreme poverty.<ref name="Palski2008"/> Only 19,000 men were among the NKVD deportees,<ref name="Palski2008"/> most of them sent to coal mines and stone quarries in the north. None of the people deported by the NKVD received any farms or empty homes to live in.<ref name="Palski2008"/>


Operation Vistula sections
Intro  Background  Action participants  Events  Situation of Lemkos in Poland  Legacy   See also    References   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Background
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