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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} The Polish Operation of the Soviet NKVD security service in 1937–1938 was a mass operation of the NKVD carried out against purported Polish agents in the Soviet Union during the period of the Great Purge. It was ordered by the Politburo against the so-called "Polish spies" and customarily interpreted by the NKVD officials as relating to "absolutely all Poles". It resulted in the sentencing of 139,835 people, and summary executions of 111,091 ethnic Poles,<ref name="Gellately-Kiernan" /><ref name="Gellately-Kiernan" /><ref name = "Goldman 2011, 217">Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8. p. 217.</ref> as well as those accused of working for Poland.<ref name="nybooks-1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The operation was implemented according to NKVD Order № 00485 signed by Nikolai Yezhov.<ref name="Russian1" /> The majority of the victims were ethnically Polish but not all, according to Timothy Snyder, who gives a conservative estimate of 85,000 confirmed Poles executed simultaneously across the country.<ref name ="Snyder 2010, 103-104">Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9. pp. 103–104.</ref> The remainder were 'suspected' of being Polish, without further inquiry.<ref name="Russian1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

In order to speed up the process the NKVD personnel reviewed local telephone books and arrested persons with Polish-sounding names. In Leningrad alone, almost 7,000 citizens were rounded up this way. A vast majority of such nominal "suspects" were executed within 10 days of arrest.<ref name="arlindo-correia">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The Polish Operation was the largest ethnic shooting and deportation action during the Great Terror campaign of political murders in the Soviet Union, orchestrated by Joseph Stalin.<ref name="bookhaven">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="B/E/F">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38) sections
Intro  Order \u2116 00485  Scale of the Polish Operation and its victims   Footnotes    Further reading   

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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} The Polish Operation of the Soviet NKVD security service in 1937–1938 was a mass operation of the NKVD carried out against purported Polish agents in the Soviet Union during the period of the Great Purge. It was ordered by the Politburo against the so-called "Polish spies" and customarily interpreted by the NKVD officials as relating to "absolutely all Poles". It resulted in the sentencing of 139,835 people, and summary executions of 111,091 ethnic Poles,<ref name="Gellately-Kiernan" /><ref name="Gellately-Kiernan" /><ref name = "Goldman 2011, 217">Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8. p. 217.</ref> as well as those accused of working for Poland.<ref name="nybooks-1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The operation was implemented according to NKVD Order № 00485 signed by Nikolai Yezhov.<ref name="Russian1" /> The majority of the victims were ethnically Polish but not all, according to Timothy Snyder, who gives a conservative estimate of 85,000 confirmed Poles executed simultaneously across the country.<ref name ="Snyder 2010, 103-104">Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9. pp. 103–104.</ref> The remainder were 'suspected' of being Polish, without further inquiry.<ref name="Russian1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

In order to speed up the process the NKVD personnel reviewed local telephone books and arrested persons with Polish-sounding names. In Leningrad alone, almost 7,000 citizens were rounded up this way. A vast majority of such nominal "suspects" were executed within 10 days of arrest.<ref name="arlindo-correia">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The Polish Operation was the largest ethnic shooting and deportation action during the Great Terror campaign of political murders in the Soviet Union, orchestrated by Joseph Stalin.<ref name="bookhaven">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="B/E/F">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38) sections
Intro  Order \u2116 00485  Scale of the Polish Operation and its victims   Footnotes    Further reading   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Order \u2116 00485
<<>>