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A dried bud of cannabis, which can be used for medical therapy.

Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, refers to the use of cannabis and its cannabinoids to treat disease or improve symptoms. The use of cannabis as a medicine has not been rigorously scientifically tested, often due to production restrictions.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> There is limited evidence suggesting cannabis can be used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms.<ref name=Borgelt2013>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name=JAMA2015/> Its use for other medical applications is insufficient for conclusions about safety or efficacy.

Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects.<ref name=JAMA2015/> Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations.<ref name=JAMA2015/> Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear.<ref name=Wang2008/> Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.<ref name=Borgelt2013/>

The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures.<ref name=BenAmar2006>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Its current use is controversial. The American Medical Association, the Minnesota Medical Association, the American Society of Addiction Medicine, and other medical organizations have issued statements opposing its use for medicinal purposes.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=MMA2014>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The American Academy of Pediatrics states that while cannabinoids may have potential as therapy for a number of medical conditions, they do not recommend it until more research is done. They, along with the American Medical Association and the Minnesota Medical Association, call for moving cannabis out of DEA Schedule I to facilitate this research.<ref name=MMA2014 /><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=AMA>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Medical cannabis can be administered using a variety of methods, including vaporizing or smoking dried buds, eating extracts, taking capsules or using oral sprays. Synthetic cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in some countries; examples include: dronabinol and nabilone. Recreational use of cannabis is illegal in most parts of the world, but the medical use of cannabis is legal in certain countries, including Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Australia is currently in the process of passing a law which would allow the use of marijuana for medical and scientific purposes.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In the United States, federal law outlaws all cannabis use, while 20 states and the District of Columbia no longer prosecute individuals for the possession or sale of marijuana, as long as the individuals are in compliance with the state's marijuana sale regulations. However, an appeals court ruled in January 2014 that a 2007 Ninth Circuit ruling remains binding in relation to the ongoing illegality, in federal legislative terms, of Californian cannabis dispensaries, reaffirming the impact of the federal Controlled Substances Act.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Medical cannabis sections
Intro   Medical uses    Adverse effects    Pharmacology    History   Society and culture   Research    See also    References    Further reading    External links   

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Cannabis::journal    Title::first    Medical::volume    Issue::pages    Author::effects    Cannabis::review

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A dried bud of cannabis, which can be used for medical therapy.

Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, refers to the use of cannabis and its cannabinoids to treat disease or improve symptoms. The use of cannabis as a medicine has not been rigorously scientifically tested, often due to production restrictions.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> There is limited evidence suggesting cannabis can be used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms.<ref name=Borgelt2013>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name=JAMA2015/> Its use for other medical applications is insufficient for conclusions about safety or efficacy.

Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects.<ref name=JAMA2015/> Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations.<ref name=JAMA2015/> Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear.<ref name=Wang2008/> Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.<ref name=Borgelt2013/>

The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures.<ref name=BenAmar2006>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Its current use is controversial. The American Medical Association, the Minnesota Medical Association, the American Society of Addiction Medicine, and other medical organizations have issued statements opposing its use for medicinal purposes.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=MMA2014>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The American Academy of Pediatrics states that while cannabinoids may have potential as therapy for a number of medical conditions, they do not recommend it until more research is done. They, along with the American Medical Association and the Minnesota Medical Association, call for moving cannabis out of DEA Schedule I to facilitate this research.<ref name=MMA2014 /><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=AMA>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Medical cannabis can be administered using a variety of methods, including vaporizing or smoking dried buds, eating extracts, taking capsules or using oral sprays. Synthetic cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in some countries; examples include: dronabinol and nabilone. Recreational use of cannabis is illegal in most parts of the world, but the medical use of cannabis is legal in certain countries, including Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Australia is currently in the process of passing a law which would allow the use of marijuana for medical and scientific purposes.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In the United States, federal law outlaws all cannabis use, while 20 states and the District of Columbia no longer prosecute individuals for the possession or sale of marijuana, as long as the individuals are in compliance with the state's marijuana sale regulations. However, an appeals court ruled in January 2014 that a 2007 Ninth Circuit ruling remains binding in relation to the ongoing illegality, in federal legislative terms, of Californian cannabis dispensaries, reaffirming the impact of the federal Controlled Substances Act.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Medical cannabis sections
Intro   Medical uses    Adverse effects    Pharmacology    History   Society and culture   Research    See also    References    Further reading    External links   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Medical uses
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