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General Jacob Hurd Smith (January 29, 1840 – March 1, 1918) was a United States Army officer notorious for ordering an indiscriminate retaliatory attack on a group of Filipinos during the Philippine–American War, in which American soldiers killed between 2,500 and 50,000 civilians.<ref name="Britannica_Smith">"Jacob F. Smith."(2010). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-09-30.</ref><ref name=bradley/> His orders included, "kill everyone over the age of ten" and make the island "a howling wilderness."<ref name=smith>Miller p. 220; PBS documentary "Crucible of Empire"; Philippine NewsLink interview with Bob Couttie author of "Hang the Dogs, The True and Tragic History of the Balangiga Massacre" Ten days after President McKinley's death, the residents of Balangiga, a tiny village 400 miles southeast of Manila, attacked the local U.S. garrison. While U.S. soldiers ate breakfast, the church bells rang a signal. Filipinos brandishing machetes emerged from their hiding places. Forty-eight Americans, two-thirds of the garrison, were butchered, in what is called the Balangiga massacre. On the orders of General Jacob H. Smith, U.S. troops retaliated against the entire island (600 square miles) of Samar where Balangiga is located. The exchange is known because of two courts-martial: one of Waller, who was later court-martialed for ordering or allowing the execution of a dozen Filipino bearers, and the other of Gen. Jacob H. Smith, who was actually court-martialed for giving that order. The jury is out to the extent that order was carried out, because Littleton Waller actually countermanded it to his own men and said "Captain David Porter, I've had instructions to kill everyone over ten years old. But we are not making war on women and children, only on men capable of bearing arms. Keep that in mind no matter what other orders you receive." Undoubtedly, some men did commit atrocities regardless of Waller's commands.</ref> Court-martialed for the incident,<ref name="Britannica_Smith"/> he was dubbed "Hell Roaring Jake" Smith, "The Monster", and "Howling Jake" by the press as a result.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Jacob H. Smith sections
Intro  Civil War and post-bellum  Army judge advocate position  Smith's further gaffes  Legal problems  Philippine\u2013American War  Later life  Battle wounds  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  

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General Jacob Hurd Smith (January 29, 1840 – March 1, 1918) was a United States Army officer notorious for ordering an indiscriminate retaliatory attack on a group of Filipinos during the Philippine–American War, in which American soldiers killed between 2,500 and 50,000 civilians.<ref name="Britannica_Smith">"Jacob F. Smith."(2010). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-09-30.</ref><ref name=bradley/> His orders included, "kill everyone over the age of ten" and make the island "a howling wilderness."<ref name=smith>Miller p. 220; PBS documentary "Crucible of Empire"; Philippine NewsLink interview with Bob Couttie author of "Hang the Dogs, The True and Tragic History of the Balangiga Massacre" Ten days after President McKinley's death, the residents of Balangiga, a tiny village 400 miles southeast of Manila, attacked the local U.S. garrison. While U.S. soldiers ate breakfast, the church bells rang a signal. Filipinos brandishing machetes emerged from their hiding places. Forty-eight Americans, two-thirds of the garrison, were butchered, in what is called the Balangiga massacre. On the orders of General Jacob H. Smith, U.S. troops retaliated against the entire island (600 square miles) of Samar where Balangiga is located. The exchange is known because of two courts-martial: one of Waller, who was later court-martialed for ordering or allowing the execution of a dozen Filipino bearers, and the other of Gen. Jacob H. Smith, who was actually court-martialed for giving that order. The jury is out to the extent that order was carried out, because Littleton Waller actually countermanded it to his own men and said "Captain David Porter, I've had instructions to kill everyone over ten years old. But we are not making war on women and children, only on men capable of bearing arms. Keep that in mind no matter what other orders you receive." Undoubtedly, some men did commit atrocities regardless of Waller's commands.</ref> Court-martialed for the incident,<ref name="Britannica_Smith"/> he was dubbed "Hell Roaring Jake" Smith, "The Monster", and "Howling Jake" by the press as a result.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Jacob H. Smith sections
Intro  Civil War and post-bellum  Army judge advocate position  Smith's further gaffes  Legal problems  Philippine\u2013American War  Later life  Battle wounds  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Civil War and post-bellum
<<>>