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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}} The Great Leap Forward ({{#invoke:Zh|Zh}}) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1961. The campaign was led by Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization. Some critics consider this campaign to have caused the Great Chinese Famine.

Chief changes in the lives of rural Chinese included the introduction of mandatory agricultural collectivization, which was introduced incrementally. Private farming was prohibited, and those engaged in it were labeled as counter-revolutionaries and persecuted. Restrictions on rural people were enforced through public struggle sessions, and social pressure, although people also experienced forced labor.<ref name=mirsky/> Rural industrialization, officially a priority of the campaign, saw "its development ... aborted by the mistakes of the Great Leap Forward."<ref>Perkins, Dwight (1991). "China's Economic Policy and Performance". Chapter 6 in The Cambridge History of China, volume 15, ed. by Roderick MacFarquhar, John K. Fairbank and Denis Twitchett. Cambridge University Press.</ref>

Critics claim the Great Leap ended in catastrophe, resulting in tens of millions of deaths,<ref>Tao Yang, Dennis (2008). "China's Agricultural Crisis and Famine of 1959–1961: A Survey and Comparison to Soviet Famines." Palgrave MacMillan, Comparative Economic Studies 50, pp. 1–29.</ref> although supporters claimed the campaign did accelerate industrialisation of the state. Estimates of the death toll range from 18 million<ref name=grada9/> to 45 million,<ref name=dikotterxii/> with estimates by demographic specialists ranging from 18 million to 32.5 million.<ref name=grada9>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Historian Frank Dikötter asserts that "coercion, terror, and systematic violence were the very foundation of the Great Leap Forward" and it "motivated one of the most deadly mass killings of human history".<ref>Dikötter, Frank (2010). pp. x, xi. ISBN 0-8027-7768-6</ref> However, it is disputed whether these death numbers are accurate by pro-socialist sources.<ref>[1]</ref>

The years of the Great Leap Forward in fact saw economic regression, with 1958 through 1962 being the only period between 1953 and 1985 in which China's economy shrank. Political economist Dwight Perkins argues, "enormous amounts of investment produced only modest increases in production or none at all. ... In short, the Great Leap was a very expensive disaster."<ref>Perkins (1991). Pages 483-486 for quoted text, page 493 for growth rates table.</ref>

In subsequent conferences in March 1960 and May 1962, the negative effects of the Great Leap Forward were studied by the CPC, and Mao was criticized in the party conferences. Moderate Party members like Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rose to power, and Mao was marginalized within the party, leading him to initiate the Cultural Revolution in 1966.


Great Leap Forward sections
Intro  Background  Organizational and operational factors  Consequences  See also  References  Bibliography and further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Background
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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}} The Great Leap Forward ({{#invoke:Zh|Zh}}) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1961. The campaign was led by Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization. Some critics consider this campaign to have caused the Great Chinese Famine.

Chief changes in the lives of rural Chinese included the introduction of mandatory agricultural collectivization, which was introduced incrementally. Private farming was prohibited, and those engaged in it were labeled as counter-revolutionaries and persecuted. Restrictions on rural people were enforced through public struggle sessions, and social pressure, although people also experienced forced labor.<ref name=mirsky/> Rural industrialization, officially a priority of the campaign, saw "its development ... aborted by the mistakes of the Great Leap Forward."<ref>Perkins, Dwight (1991). "China's Economic Policy and Performance". Chapter 6 in The Cambridge History of China, volume 15, ed. by Roderick MacFarquhar, John K. Fairbank and Denis Twitchett. Cambridge University Press.</ref>

Critics claim the Great Leap ended in catastrophe, resulting in tens of millions of deaths,<ref>Tao Yang, Dennis (2008). "China's Agricultural Crisis and Famine of 1959–1961: A Survey and Comparison to Soviet Famines." Palgrave MacMillan, Comparative Economic Studies 50, pp. 1–29.</ref> although supporters claimed the campaign did accelerate industrialisation of the state. Estimates of the death toll range from 18 million<ref name=grada9/> to 45 million,<ref name=dikotterxii/> with estimates by demographic specialists ranging from 18 million to 32.5 million.<ref name=grada9>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Historian Frank Dikötter asserts that "coercion, terror, and systematic violence were the very foundation of the Great Leap Forward" and it "motivated one of the most deadly mass killings of human history".<ref>Dikötter, Frank (2010). pp. x, xi. ISBN 0-8027-7768-6</ref> However, it is disputed whether these death numbers are accurate by pro-socialist sources.<ref>[1]</ref>

The years of the Great Leap Forward in fact saw economic regression, with 1958 through 1962 being the only period between 1953 and 1985 in which China's economy shrank. Political economist Dwight Perkins argues, "enormous amounts of investment produced only modest increases in production or none at all. ... In short, the Great Leap was a very expensive disaster."<ref>Perkins (1991). Pages 483-486 for quoted text, page 493 for growth rates table.</ref>

In subsequent conferences in March 1960 and May 1962, the negative effects of the Great Leap Forward were studied by the CPC, and Mao was criticized in the party conferences. Moderate Party members like Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rose to power, and Mao was marginalized within the party, leading him to initiate the Cultural Revolution in 1966.


Great Leap Forward sections
Intro  Background  Organizational and operational factors  Consequences  See also  References  Bibliography and further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Background
<<>>